The Galapagos Islands or the Archipelago of Columbus, is a province of Ecuador, located 972 kilometers west of the Ecuadorian coast. Officially, it is also called the Insular Region of Ecuador. The capital is Puerto Baquerizo Moreno and reports directly to the National Government. The Galapagos Islands is an archipelago made up of 13 large volcanic islands, 6 smaller islands and 107 rocks and islets. The formation of the first island took place about 5 million years ago as a result of tectonic activity. The youngest islands are Isabela and Fernandina, and they are actually in a process of formation, the most recent volcanic eruption was in 2009. The Galapagos Islands are known around the world as the "Enchanted Islands", famous for their numerous endemic species, and for the studies of Charles Darwin that led him to establish his Theory of Evolution by natural selection. In addition, the flora and fauna found in the Islands is practically unique. The Galapagos were declared a National Park in 1959. In 1978, UNESCO declared them Natural Heritage of Humanity, and in 1985, a Biosphere Reserve. In 1986, the sea that surrounds the Galapagos Islands was declared a marine reserve. In 2001 UNESCO adheres to the declaration of Natural Heritage of Humanity, other recognitions such as: Whale Sanctuary, Biosphere Reserve and RASMAR Site (for the protection of wetlands)
The 95% of species originally registered in the Ecuadorian archipelago of Galapagos are in "good state of conservation". The Manager of the Galapagos National Park explained that the percentage involves all native and endemic species grouped in vertebrates, invertebrates and plants. For example, he said there are 1,238 penguins, a species classified as "very vulnerable" due to climate change, while there are 300 flamingos throughout the archipelago. On the other hand, the estimated population of tortoises is between 45,000 to 60,000 individuals. The population of marine iguanas exceeds 60,000 individuals, while the terrestrial ones, would range between 10,000 and 15,000. "These species are very important in the ecosystem of Galapagos, and having these numbers are really important," the PNG concluded that "95% of the native species to Galapagos remain in good and excellent state of conservation," he said.
The giant tortoises of Galapagos Islands were in danger of extinction, but Danny Rueda - head of ecosystems- decided in 2012 to take some protective measures, so that the giant tortoises can reproduce and the eggs fulfill the cycle of life.
Galapagos has become the 'Leading Beach Destination in the World', placing Ecuador as a paradise in the middle of the world, within the 24Th World Travel Awards (WTA) that took place in Vietnam. This recognition was broadcast by the Ministry of Tourism, through a statement.
Researchers from the University of South Alabama (United States), the University of Oporto (Portugal), Yale University (United States) and the University of Montpellier (France) point out that a type of shell could evolve so that, falling on their backs, turtles could turn around and thus reduce the danger of death.